After Diablo 4’s massive season 1 patch — which shook the game up a little too much for most players — Blizzard previewed another patch (1.1.1) that would give a boost to the game’s weakest classes. And while the patch itself won’t be out until Aug. 8, Blizzard published the full patch notes on Wednesday, and they include a lot more than buffs for the Barbarian and Sorcerer.
The biggest changes in this patch aren’t actually angled toward a specific class, and instead focus on monster density. Nightmare Dungeons and the Helltide activity will include a significantly increased number of monsters once the patch goes live. While that might sound like a bad thing, or an increase in difficulty, this is actually a major buff to player XP. Most builds in Diablo 4 can mow down large groups of enemies with a single click, and adding more just means that each spell cast nets you more XP and more rewards.
The catch to the increased monster density change, is that it also comes with an increase in boss health. All bosses above level 60 will have a little extra health come Aug. 8. At level 80, that increase is +50%, and at level 150 it’s up to +150%.
Most Nightmare Dungeon bosses go down very quickly in Diablo 4, and have since the game launched in June. As a result, most endgame builds focus on rapidly clearing groups of enemies, rather than burning down one big target. This increase to boss health promises to be one of the biggest shifts in the game’s meta since launch, as players will almost certainly need to shift away from pure area-of-effect builds like the Barbarian’s Whirlwind or the Druid’s Pulverize, which already do abysmal boss damage.
To compensate for their increased difficulty, all boss-tier monsters over level 35 will drop a guaranteed Legendary item. Most Nightmare Dungeons were already rather generous with Legendary drops, but this at least guarantees that players won’t be wasting their time. Treasure Goblins will also drop guaranteed Legendaries now, provided they’re over level 15. And Legion Events will drop a guaranteed Legendary starting at level 35. The latter two changes are particularly great for leveling each season, when Legendaries are a lot harder to come.
As for class changes, the Barbarians and the Sorcerers are still the real winners here, just like Blizzard initially suggested — although probably not enough to knock them out of the bottom two slots this season.
For Barbarians, many skills that generate Fury now generate even more, which is a huge boon for early game. Several of their damage dealing skills like Rupture and Double Swing will also be more powerful once the patch hits.
Sorcerers — which have struggled more than most classes since the game launched — got the most changes. Blizzard rebalanced several of the class’ Paragon nodes, and improved numerous Legendaries. This patch isn’t going to change Sorcerers from being the squishiest of the five classes, but their significant increase in damage should help compensate even more than before.
In addition to these specific callouts, Blizzard made numerous bug fixes and balance changes in this patch. We’ve listed all of the changes below so that you can better theory craft ahead of the patch’s official release on Aug. 8.
CLASS BALANCE UPDATES
Hello wanderer, welcome to Patch 1.1.1!
We’ve made quite a few balance adjustments to Classes. Our goals with this patch are as follows:
We want to improve the effectiveness of Sorcerers and Barbarians while addressing the following for each Class:
- Improve late-game survivability, mostly through Paragon Board improvements.
- Adjust some Class mechanics to move away from “Kiss-Curse” effects—this is where the player gains power but loses power somewhere else.
- Speed up the flow of combat in the early game by increasing Fury generation on Basic Skills.
- Add late-game excitement by increasing the power of Unique items.
Strengthen builds that aren’t reaching a high power level.
Diversify the use cases for Legendary items and other effects that are overly situational.
- Fury gained increased from 11 to 13.
- Fury gained increased from 10 to 13.
- Fury gained increased from 2 to 3.
- Fury gained increased from 10 to 12.
- Damage increased from 40% to 50%.
- Damage increased from 45% to 70%.
- Damage increased from 30% to 60%.
- Vulnerable duration increased from 2 to 4 seconds.
- If Upheaval damages at least 2 enemies or a Boss, you gain Berserking for 2 seconds, increased to 3 seconds if it damages at least 4 enemies.
- Damage reduction increased from 3% to 4%.
- Bleed damage dealt based on Critical Damage bonus increased from 100% to 115%.
- Bleed damage when Overpowering increased from 11% to 70%.
- Berserking damage bonus increased from 25% to 35%.
- Updated the tooltip to more clearly reflect this Key Passive’s value
- Bonus damage duration increased from 6 to 8 seconds.
Aspect of Ancestral Force
- Damage increased from 32-50% to 40-58%.
Death Wish Aspect
- Thorns increased from .5-.75 to .65-.85.
Aspect of Unrelenting Fury
- Core Skill cost to refund increased from 10-20% to 20-30%.
- Cost refund also granted when hitting Bosses.
Aspect of Ancestral Charge
- Damage increased from 50-100% to 75-125%.
Aspect of Burning Rage
- Damage increased from .22-.28 to .3-.38.
Aspect of Bul-Kathos
- Damage reduction while in Earthquakes increased from 5-15% to 15-25%.
- Damage bonus in Earthquakes increased from 5-15% to 15-25%.
Fields of Crimson
- Damage increased from .18-.34 to .22-.38.
- Damage that enemies take standing in pools increased from 15% to 20%.
- Rupture Cooldown Reduction affix replaced with Bonus Critical Strike Damage.
- Damage increased from .6-.8 to .85-1.1.
- Burning duration increased from 3 to 4 seconds.
- Damage to Crowd Controlled Enemies affix replaced with Bonus Critical Strike Damage.
Ramaladni’s Magnum Opus
- Physical Damage affix replaced with Vulnerable Damage.
- Attacks reduce Evade’s cooldown affix replace with bonus Evade charges.
- Damage against Stunned affix replace with bonus Movement Speed.
- Basic Skill Damage affix replaced with Cooldown Reduction.
- Bonus Attack Speed to other skills increased from 10-20% to 35-45%.
Fundamental Invigorating Strike
- Energy threshold increased from 50% to 75%.
Primary Forceful Arrow
- Every third cast pierces enemies.
- Damage bonus increased from 3% to 5%.
- Damage increased from 344% to 396%.
Supreme Rain of Arrows
- Rain of Arrow’s first wave Knocks Down enemies for 3 seconds.
- Lucky Hit chance increased from 35% to 45%.
- Damage Reduction against Damage over Time effects increased from 6/12/18% to 9/18/27%.
- Lucky Hit chance increased from 75% to 85%.
Aspect of Elusive Menace
- No longer requires hits to be from Close enemies.
Aspect of Quickening Fog
- You automatically drop a Smoke Grenade at the end of Dash. Smoke Grenades reduce Dash’s cooldown by .4-.6 seconds per target hit, up to 2-3 seconds.
- All Stats affix replaced with Vulnerable Damage.
Word of Hakan
- Ultimate Damage affix replaced with Cooldown Reduction.
- Spirit gain increased from 11 to 13.
- Spirit gain increased from 11 to 12.
- Spirit gain increased from 14 to 15.
- Spirit gain increased from 13 to 14.
- Spirit gain increased from 15 to 17.
- Passive damage increased from 7.8% to 11%.
- Active damage increased from 110% to 135%.
Enhanced Wolf Pack
- Damage bonus increased from 20% to 25%.
Brutal Wolf Pack
- Attack Speed bonus increased from 20% to 25%.
Ferocious Wolf Pack
- Fortify amount increased from 5% to 8%.
- Passive damage increased from 13% to 20%.
- Additional functionality:
- Increase the passive damage of Ravens by 40%.
- Damage over time increased from 76% to 110%.
Lightning Resilience Rare Node
- Maximum Life bonus increased from 4% to 6%.
Aspect of Metamorphic Stone
- Spirit cost reduced from 60 to 50.
- Damage dealt increased from 80-100% to 100-120%.
Aspect of the Alpha
- Damage increased from 75-100% to 90-115%.
- Resource gain increased from 1 to 3.
- Lucky Hit Chance increased from 20% to 40%.
Flickering Fire Bolt
- Fire Bolt generates 2 Mana when hitting an enemy.
- Casting Fireball increases its radius by 50%.
- Fireball’s Critical Strike Damage is increased by 20%. This bonus is increased to 30% if Fireball hits at least 3 enemies.
Greater Chain Lightning
- Each time Chain Lightning bounces, it deals 5% increased damage for its duration.
Destructive Chain Lightning
- Chance to form Crackling Energy increased from 25% to 30%.
- Damage bonus increased from 10% to 15%.
- Additional functionality:
- Both bonuses are also granted for 3 seconds when hitting a Boss with a Critical Strike.
- Your Burning effects deal x20% increased damage, plus an additional x2% increased damage per unique source of Burning you have applied to the enemy.
Searing Heat Legendary Node
- Casting Fireball or Meteor increases your Critical Strike Chance by 5% for 5 seconds, up to 15%.
Ceaseless Conduit Legendary Node
- Increase Crackling Energy’s damage from 2% to 3% per 20 Intelligence the player has Reinforce Rare Glyph.
Territorial Rare Glyph
- Damage reduction increased from 10% to 15%.
Warding Rare Glyph
- Damage reduction increased from 13% to 25%.
Keeper of Flames Rare Node
- Damage reduction increased from 4% to 5%.
- Bonus damage reduction increased from 4% to 5%.
Smoldering Embers Rare Node
- Damage reduction from burning enemies increased from 4% to 5%.
- Bonus damage reduction from burning enemies increased from 4% to 5%.
Guarded Rare Node
- Damage reduction from Vulnerable enemies increased from 4% to 5%.
- Bonus damage reduction from Vulnerable enemies increased from 4% to 5%.
Oppressive Rare Node
- Damage reduction from Vulnerable enemies increased from 4% to 5%.
- Lightning Resilience Rare Node
- Maximum Life bonus increased from 4% to 6%.
- You may have 1 additional Hydra active, and Hydra’s duration is increased by 14-24%.
- This now also affects Hydra’s Enchantment Effect.
Aspect of Conflagration
- Bonus Burning damage increased from 20-30% to 20-40%.
Aspect of Engulfing Flames
- Bonus Burning damage increased from 30%-40% to 60%-80%.
Aspect of Three Curses
- Increase the Critical Strike Damage of Meteor and Fireball by 20%-40%. Double this bonus against Healthy enemies.
- Bonus Movement Speed duration increased from 4 to 6 seconds.
- Ball Lightning orbits around you and deals 15-25% increased damage.
Aspect of Unbroken Tether
- Additional Chain Lightning bounces increased from 2 to 4.
- Each time Chain Lightning bounces, you gain 1.5-3 Mana.
- Bonus Movement Speed duration increased from 4 to 8 seconds.
Aspect of the Bounding Conduit
- Bonus Movement Speed increased from 20-25% to 25-30%.
New Legendary – Mage-Lord’s Aspect
- Increase Vyr’s Mastery Key Passive’s Damage Reduction by 6-9% for each Close enemy, up to 18-27%.
Aspect of Frozen Orbit
- Damage increased from 20-30% to 30-40%.
Storm Swell Aspect
- Bonus damage increased from 11-20% to 21-30%.
- Unstoppable duration increased from 2-3 seconds to 3-5 seconds.
- Also grants 10% bonus Armor for 3-5 seconds.
- Lucky Hit: Damage from your Pyromancy skills has up to a 12-17% chance to restore 10 Mana.
- While within your own Blizzard and for 3 seconds after leaving it, you take 20-25% less damage.
Aspect of Concentration
- Mana Regeneration increased from 20-30% to 40-50%.
- Duration requirement to gain its benefit reduced from 3 to 2 seconds.
Gloves of the Illuminator
- Damage penalty reduced from 65-55% to 45-35%.
- Damage to Stunned affix replaced with Lucky Hit: Change to Restore Resource.
- Illuminator’s first bounce occurs much closer to the player.
Enhanced Bone Spirit
- Cooldown reduction increased from 6 to 7 seconds.
Wither Legendary Board
- Willpower requirement for bonuses reduced from 50 to 40.
- Bonus damage per 40 Willpower increased from 2.5% to 4%.
Aspect of Empowering Reaper
- Damaging enemies with Sever has a 10-20% chance to spawn a pool of Blight under the target that deals 20-60% bonus damage. This effect can only happen once every 3 seconds.
Aspect of Exposed Flesh
- Lucky Hit: Up to a 10% chance to generate 30-50 Essence when hitting a Vulnerable enemy.
Aspect of Decay
- Damage increased from 20-40% to 25-45%.
Aspect of Torment
- Essence Regeneration increased from 20-30% to 90-170%.
- Legendary category changed from Resource to Utility.
- Chance for Golem to reduce its cooldown increased from 1-4% to 2-5%.
- Chance to Golem to spawn a corpse increased from 0.5-2% to 1-2.5%.
Greaves of the Empty Tomb
- Intelligence affix replaced with Bonus Movement Speed.
- The following attacks now deal reduced damage to Druid Companions and Necromancer Minions:
- Fire Breath
- Fire Enchanted
- Electrified Obelisks
- Shock Lance
We are increasing monster density in Nightmare Dungeons and in Helltide.
- Bosses above Level 60 will have more health. Examples:
- Bosses at Level 60 and below remain unchanged.
- Bosses at Level 80 have 50% increased health.
- Bosses at Level 100 have 100% increased health.
- Bosses at Level 120 have 120% increased health.
- Bosses at Level 150 and above have 150% increased health.
Bosses and Events
Developer’s Note: We are making adjustments to the health values of high-level boss monsters.
- Level 35 and higher boss monsters will now have a 100% chance to drop a Legendary item.
- Treasure Goblins now have an increased Legendary item drop chance from Level 6-14 and guarantee a Legendary item drop starting at Level 15.
- Legion Events are now more rewarding and guarantee a Legendary item drop starting at level 35.
- We have made multiple improvements on how damage and other effects interact with active barriers.
- Bonus damage or bonus effects that are applied on-hit or when dealing damage will now apply that same effect through barriers.
- Ex: The Exploit Paragon Glyph will now apply Vulnerable to enemies that have an active barrier.
- Cheat death effects will now work properly when the player has an active barrier.
- This also affects PvP play.
- Varshan will now break through any Bone Wall segments he dashes through.
- The cost for refunding Skill and Paragon Points has been reduced. The reduction starts small at lower Levels and hits a maximum of 40% at Level 100.
- Ex: Level 50 – 12%, Level 60 – 18%, Level 70 – 24%, Level 80 – 30%.
- We’ve increased the stack limit for Elixirs from 20 to 99.
- An additional Stash Tab can now be purchased at the Stash with gold.
- We have restored the cast time for Leave Dungeon back to 3 seconds.
Developer’s Note: Leave Dungeon ability was being used as another method of easy escape from danger in dungeons, particularly for Hardcore players. However, we recognize that this is outweighed by the downside of the game feeling less responsive. We’ve heard your feedback, and are reversing this change.
- The following Nightmare Dungeon affixes have been removed:
Empowered Elites (Cold Enchanted)
Caged Heart of Spellbreaking
- Changed to: Upon taking Elemental Damage, gain 10-20% Damage Reduction for 5 seconds.
Generic Unique Items
- + All Stats affix replaced with Max Life.
- Barrier is now based on maximum Life.
- Now properly accounted by conditions checking for the player having a Barrier.
- Screen Reader support for reading class icons has been added.
- Fixed an issue where the Screen Reader wouldn’t read out capitalized, accented letters, or special characters.
- Fixed an issue where progression in the Final Straw quest could be blocked during Co-op play.
- Fixed an issue where only the first player could activate Points of Interest during Co-op play.
- Fixed an issue where using a Town Portal while attempting to enter a dungeon would cause both players to get stuck during Local Co-Op play.
- Fixed an issue where follower NPCs could not function properly in scenarios where players were mounted during Local Co-Op play.
- Fixed an issue where the quest progress tracker of other players wouldn’t display properly in certain situations during Local Co-Op play.
- Fixed an issue where the Season Info would not properly display when Player 2 created a new character during Local Co-Op play.
- Fixed an issue where a player engaged in conversation with an NPC would see a black screen if another player in their party teleported away.
- Fixed an issue where progression in the Seaside Decent Dungeon could be blocked when the Butcher or a Treasure Goblin spawned behind the barrier.
- Fixed an issue where the Determination malignant power wouldn’t function against the Resource Burn affix for Nightmare Dungeons.
- Fixed an issue where the Resource Burn affix for Nightmare Dungeons was applying from close enemies and not just distant enemies.
- Fixed an issue where the Boss in the Den of the Blighted could be damaged through the fog wall.
- Critters, non-combative creatures, in Nightmare Dungeons with the Death Pulse affix will no longer explode on death (this explosion was never dealing damage).
- Fixed an issue where players could leave their Party after dying in a Nightmare dungeon, re-enter their party, and then re-enter the dungeon and not have their revives count towards the Dungeon’s revive cap.
- Fixed an issue where Animus carriers killed before the Animus objective was triggered would not drop Animus, blocking dungeon progression.
- Fixed an issue where the Reset Dungeon button often malfunctioned.
- Fixed an issue where Keeper Xor’lim sometimes would not drop Garan’s Key in the Garan Hold Nightmare Dungeon.
- Fixed an issue where Charge didn’t carry all enemies hit along with the Barbarian.
- Fixed an issue where Lunging Strike could cause the player character to get stuck under the ground.
- Fixed an issue where the bonus Critical Strike chance granted by the Focused Rage malignant power could be consumed by non-combat skills.
- Fixed an issue where the Aspect of Berserk Ripping wouldn’t cause targets to bleed when Berserking.
- The tooltip for the Moonrage malignant power now also communicates the power’s additional Lucky Hit chance of spawning a wolf when damaging a boss.
- This tooltip now properly communicates that it grants +3 ranks to Wolves.
- Fixed an issue where Call of the Wild and Aspect of the Stampede were not properly affecting the passive portions of Companion skills and the active portion of Wolves.
- Fixed an issue that caused more Blood Orbs than intended to be active at the same time. Blood Orbs now function like Crackling Energy in that they cap at 30.
- Fixed an issue where guaranteed Overpower attacks from the Rathma’s Vigor key passive were not benefiting from the Paragon Legendary Node Bloodbath.
- Fixed an issue where the automatic Corpse Explosion casts from the Sacrilegious malignant power could ignore the damage reducing effect from the power when using unenhanced Corpse Explosion.
- Fixed an issue where the Untimely Death aspect only increased Overpower damage on the Blood Lance that was cast and not other lanced targets.
- Fixed an issue where when the Decrepit Aura Malignant Power was equipped twice, the power with the lowest number of near enemies required to activate was not the one that would trigger.
- Fixed an issue where shields held by a Necromancer would cover their face in loading screens. Fixed an issue where the Necromancer’s Imperfectly Balanced passive could only have 1 point allocated to it.
- Fixed an issue where the Decrepit Aura malignant power wouldn’t trigger when mounted.
- Fixed an issue where Poison Trap could be infinitely cast without spending Energy by using the Concealment skill near zone transition areas.
- Fixed an issue where the Shadow clone’s taunt effect from the Trickery malignant power could Taunt other players in PvP, and the taunt was not breakable by Unstoppable effects.
- Fixed an issue where the Elemental Dominance passive didn’t function correctly when using Core and Mastery skills that dealt Damage over Time.
- Ex: A meteor cast at above 50 mana that would take you under 50 mana would not get the full damage bonus.
- Fixed an issue where the Omnipower Malignant Power wouldn’t properly consume additional mana, which would then not trigger other interactions with additional resource consumption.
- Ex: the damage reduction from the Mana Shield passive.
- Fixed an issue where the Omnipower malignant power was inconsistently launching the appropriate number of projectiles. In addition, the tooltip has been updated to better describe the power.
Developer’s Note: The previous tooltip was a bit misleading as it did not consume the entirety of your mana pool. It will consume as much as it can depending on the number rolled on the affix.
- Fixed an issue where the effects from the Dark Dance malignant power would reset the Align the Elements passive.
- Fixed an issue where the random location teleport effect from The Oculus could cause players to get stuck in the environment.
- Fixed an issue where the speed increase from the Spur skill while mounted was slower on Controller than Keyboard and Mouse.
- Fixed an issue where Invasion portals spawned during certain Helltide events could be pushed off screen with Fear effects.
- Fixed an issue where Paragon Rare Nodes would sometimes not provide bonuses with stat-boosting gear.
- Fixed an issue where continuously enchanting an item could result in having the same stat show repeatedly in subsequent re-rolls.
- Fixed an issue where post-death damaging effects ignored the damage reduction from stats of close or distant enemies.
- Fixed an issue where mounting your steed while moving would behave erratically when playing on console.
- Fixed an issue where Elite enemies with the Teleporter affix could teleport from off-screen and deal excessive damage.
- Fixed an issue where Tusked Charger enemies could still damage the player after dying.
- Fixed an issue where the Corpse Spawn enemy wouldn’t attack the player.
- Fixed an issue where the Mahjoob monster was more difficult to defeat than intended.
- Fixed an issue where progression would be blocked during the Reject the Mother quest if the player left the game and came back.
- Fixed an issue where Quest objectives could be missed while mounted during the Desperate Remedies quest.
- Fixed an issue where the Fury Against Fate quest could have its progression blocked.
- Fixed an issue where the Quest tracker pin would not be visible outside of the zone where the Ruins of Faith quest was located.
- Fixed an issue where the Gore-soaked barricade could become indestructible after exiting and returning to the Cellar during the Fury Against Fate quest.
- Fixed an issue where players could repeatedly fight Varshan during the final Seasonal quest by resetting the Dungeon where he spawns.
Season of the Malignant
- Fixed an issue where the Prudent Heart malignant power would not trigger while mounted.
- Fixed an issue where the Dark Dance malignant power could behave as if the player was damaging themselves, which could apply other effects that occur when the player deals damage.
- Fixed an issue where the Invoker of Varshan recipe could be lost.
- For any player that lost the recipe, it can be acquired from any malignant kill after the seasonal quest line has been completed.
- Fixed an issue where the Barber malignant power would absorb damage from all other players and not just the player with it equipped.
- Fixed an issue where the Urn of Bargaining season blessing was increasing the enchant costs for items.
- Fixed an issue where the Dark Dance Malignant Heart could kill the player. It will no longer consume life if the player does not have enough life to pay.
Shop and Battle Pass
- Fixed an issue where the Arise emote’s visual effects wouldn’t appear when playing on low graphical settings.
- Fixed an issue where the Dagger Tap emote for Rogue from the Battle Pass would lock player movement for its duration.
- Fixed an issue where the female Necromancer animation for the Cage Puppetry emote had visual errors in the preview.
- Fixed an issue where the Phantasm Walker cosmetic set had multiple visual errors, such as clipping.
- Fixed an issue where text was missing when speaking to Kres during the Tangled Memories quest.
- Fixed an issue where the subtitles during the Light Extinguished quest were out of sync with the voiced dialogue.
- Fixed an issue where the tooltip would show the wrong name for Wrathful Malignant Hearts when equipping two rings with the heart socketed in it.
- Fixed multiple issues with text description inconsistency in Shop Bundles.
- Fixed an issue where the Scroll of Amnesia tooltip referenced stat points instead of Paragon Points.
- Fixed an issue where the tooltips for the Social and Miscellaneous tabs in the action wheel were mismatched.
- Fixed an issue where the tooltip for Battlepass emotes would erroneously describe the Emotes as Shop emotes instead of Seasonal emotes.
- Fixed an issue where the Coldiron Aegis displayed as supporting all classes, even though not all classes can use shields.
- Fixed an issue where the timer for Whispers could display incorrectly.
- Fixed an issue where the Stele of Velkhova and Hero Overwhelmed headstones were missing names in the Wardrobe.
- Fixed multiple Localization issues.
- Fixed an issue where the button highlights for controller would disappear after dismissing the Buy More Platinum prompt while navigating the Battle Pass menu.
- Fixed an issue where The Hero list could not be re-ordered.
- Fixed an issue where the player’s displayed death marker on the minimap was inaccurate compared to where their corpse was.
- Fixed an issue where the quest markers would display incorrectly if the player left the area and returned during the Answers in the Ashes quest.
- Fixed an issue where Mount Armor and Trophies wouldn’t update when selecting other Mounts in the Stable Master Vendor menu.
- Fixed an issue where controller button highlights could disappear in the Stablemaster’s menu.
- Fixed an issue where the Battle Pass interface would not properly navigate to the appropriate tier after tier skipping.
- Fixed an issue where the Die! Emote from the battle pass displayed its name incorrectly.
- Fixed an issue where the Reins of the Bloody steed would reappear in the Stablemaster’s menu after it was already acquired.
- Fixed an issue where opening multiple Clan Profile windows would cause a crash.
- Fixed an issue where a certain Necromancer hairstyle would intersect the character’s neck in cutscenes.
- Fixed an issue where Audio from Cormond could be heard even if the player was far away from him during the Enter the Forest Clearing quest step.
- Fixed an issue where the weather effect and map color change to denote Helltide would persist after Helltide ended.
- Fixed an issue where skipping the initial cutscene after creating a new character could cause a crash.
- Fixed an issue where the Bloody Liquid Steed was not always rewarded after defeating Echo of Lilith.
- Various other visual, stability, and performance improvements for all platforms.